MySQL has been around for a long time and was originally developed as Open Source and by a not-for-profit company. However the MySQL company was acquired by Sun in 2008, who were themselves bought by Oracle in 2010, thus MySQL is now an Oracle product. It remains Open Source, however there are paid for/licensed versions.

Being Open Source and commercially owned does not suit everyone so there are a couple of forks, the most popular of which is Open Source Database, Enterprise Database | MariaDB


MySQL - MySQL :: MySQL Documentation
MariaDB - SQL Structure and Commands - MariaDB Knowledge Base

My SQL Workbench

You can download this from MySQL :: Download MySQL Workbench and it is under a GPL license.
You may see issues if you use this with MariaDB, it will warn about versions but based on my limited experience I believe it works just fine.

Tools and Utilities

Sometimes you need some extra help with MySQL and this is where Percona Toolkit (MySQL Tools & Management Software to Perform System Tasks by Percona) can help.

The mysql standard utility can be used to connect to non-local servers as follows:
mysql --host=server_name
mysql -h server_name
You can see that "-h " is an abbreviation of "--host=", where the latter is the standard variable form. Very often the above will be combined with a username and password. However note that the password will be visible on the command line and also visible in a process list for command history file, so doing this is not a good idea, so leave it off and specify it when prompted. These more complete examples are as follows:
mysql --user=the_username --password=the_password --host=server_name
mysql -u the_username -p -h server_name
Note that "--password" means prompt for the password, like "-p", however "--password=" means send a blank password.

Stuff to Tidy

To see how databases were created then try this:
select * from information_schema.schemata;
This reports the following:
You can then use the following for creating a new database:
CREATE DATABASE enterprise_cache_db CHARACTER SET = 'utf8' COLLATE = 'utf8_general_ci';