These are documented at Useful Linux Commands.
The best place to get help with Windows Command Line utilities is the reference on Microsoft TechNet at Command-Line Reference
cacls - this is deprecated, see icacls
diskpart - this is the old fdisk on steroids but still the command line
dir - the classic directory listing. Note that /x shows 8.3 or short filenames
find - search for text in files
findstr - similar to find but does pattern matching
fsutil - very handy file system utility
icacls - handy utility to see and modify file and directory permissions, it replaces cacls (see below for more details)
mklink - this is how you make symbolic link or junction in Windows
nbtstat - short for NetBIOS over TCP/IP protocol Statistics, I usually use
nbtstat -a to look at a remote machine
net - this is a very handy and very powerful command, useful on Windows machines and Windows Servers (see below for more details)
netsh - very powerful "network shell" for working with networks including wi-fi, firewall and much more
netstat - this is useful when trying to see which ports are being used, add -a to see listening ports, -b to see the process or -o to see the process ID.
netstat -a | find "LISTENING" will give all listening ports only
nslookup - perform a DNS lookup with either IP address or hostname, optionally specify the DNS Server
pathping - ping all the hosts in the traceroute
powercfg - manage Power profiles
rsop.msc - displays the actual Resultant Set of Policy, whereas gpresult /r displays what the RSoP should be, a subtle difference
sc - very powerful tool for managing Windows Services, see also Windows Services and Sc
systeminfo - display a variety of system information, including hotfixes, if you just want to know which domain the machines is in then
systeminfo | find /i "domain" will filter the output
tracert - trace the network route to a host via ICMP Echo Request
where - handy little command to find path to a utility on the path or elsewhere, see below for more detail
mklink /j C:\Tcl C:\Dev\Tcl this creates a Junction or Soft Link directory called C:\Tcl which just points to C:\Dev\Tcl
This command has many sub-commands, some of which are very powerful and I find very useful. Full documentation for the net sub-commands are available from Command-Line Reference (N)
If you want to create a new user then the following works well:
net user testuser * /ADD /EXPIRES:NEVER /PASSWORDCHG:NO
The * means prompt for a password but you can specify one.
The icacls command is much more powerful than you might think. On the surface you can change file and directory permissions, which is great because it becomes easy to script and automate. However you can also save and restore ACL (Access Control List) information or more specifically DACL (Discretionary Access Control List). The subject of security and permissions is a large subject, however How Security Descriptors and Access Control Lists Work is a good starting point.
If you want to give local users modify permission on a directory and all it's files and subdirectories then use this:
icacls C:\AppsData /grant BUILTIN\Users:(OI)(CI)M /t
You can also change ownership like this:
icacls C:\AppsData /setowner DOMAIN\username /t
Note that in both cases the "/T" applies the change to the entire tree below the starting point specified, in other words the change is applied recursively.
where java is a handy usage as this will search the current directory and the PATH environment variable. However
where java* also returns javaw. In addition
where /r . *.ps1 will find all ps1 files starting in the current folder and recursing into subdirectories and then /t show files details too, a powerful little command indeed. It is worth noting that
where /r c:\ /t svn.exe is a good example of the fact that the path to search in belongs with the "/r". It always pays to read the help!